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Most likely they had a magical means of cheating the system, and had Dorothy not killed both witches, they could have given it back and forth to one another indefinitely, keeping the Winged Monkeys permanently enslaved. Oscar's Origins: For the first time, we learn about Oscar Diggs' family. He was raised by a con-artist who used his son as part of his tricks to steal and cheat.

But when he tried to pull a scam to rip off New York City, he went too far and was arrested. Oscar managed to escape, and by the ripe age of 10 had joined the circus, where he trained under master ventriloquist "Sound-Off" Simpson. There is no mention of his father, so either she died or left her husband some time after giving birth to Oscar. Winkie City: This is the first story to name the city where the Wizard landed and for a short time six months ruled. Lady Morella, Wicked Witch of the West, lived for a time in a castle in the city with a tower above all the other buildings.

When the Wizard defeated her upon his arrival, she went to her sister Lady Malvonia in the Munchkin Country before traveling north to the Gillikin Country to gain the Golden Cap. Six months after her defeat, she returned with the winged monkeys to take back her castle in the city, driving out the Wizard. Twenty-one years later, she was driven out of her castle and city again when she was defeated by the Wizard a second time. This time she had a new castle constructed or taken over northeast of her former home. It is unknown if her former castle was the ancestral home of her family.

When the Tin Woodman came to rule the Winkie Country, he briefly moved into her castle before having his own constructed The Tin Castle of Oz , though whether it was the one in Winkie City or the one closer to the border see the Oz map is unknown. It is possible Lady Morella had Winkie City destroyed in punishment of their acceptance of the Wizard, which may explain why it never appears again in story.

The Living House of Oz , however, gives the West Witch from a parallel Oz that Ozma created in Paradox in Oz , the name Mordra, and it can be assumed that it's the same name she'd have had in the primary Oz because Glinda has the same name in both dimensions. This is understood in the context of royal names or court names verses family names. Multiple names is common for royals throughout history. In other words, when the two witches were born, the one who would eventually rule the west was named Mordra.

But when she came of age or took the throne of the Winkies , she was heralded as Lady Morella. The baby who would one day rule the east was given the name Malva at birth, but when she came of age or took the throne , she was heralded as Lady Malvonia. Other titles included Wise Woman of West and Wise Woman of the East, though the citizens might have used old slang terms for them in secret, such as Gingemma or Gingema , which means witch, for Malvonia, and Bastinda, which means to hit with a stick or staff.

How the Wizard Saved Oz. Synopsis : When the Queen of the Field Mice asks the Wizard for his help in finding her subjects, the Wizard declines, fearful that he'll be revealed as a phony. The Queen suggests that he doesn't want to help because he's a fake, so to keep her silent, he agrees to assist her. She explains that they'd attended the birthday party of the King of the Winged Monkeys.

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She left for a time, and when she returned, the mice were all gone. All she found was a tattered cloth, which the Wizard examines. It was made in the City of Lavendoria by Ohbo the tailor. Looking to keep his travels a secret, the Wizard pushes an emerald on the throne, which moves it, revealing a flight of spiral steps leading underground. There, they enter a large cavern and travel past a narrow ridge above an abyss, beneath which runs a river that purportedly goes to the center of the earth. Coming to a tunnel, it leads to a large emerald-encrusted cavern where the Queen of the Field Mice inquires about a large mahogany throne that sits there.

The Wizard explains that it's the Throne of Pastoria, who he'd heard was transformed into a bird when he drank what he thought was water from a woman who was a witch that he met one day while strolling in the woods. After the people built the Emerald City, they presented the Wizard with the throne. Yet, the former king's half-brother was a powerful military leader named General Riskitt, who coveted power, knowing that whomever sat upon it would be seen as the Rightful Ruler. He attempted to get the people to overthrow the Wizard, but widespread dislike for the general caused his plan of revolt to fail.

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He next attempted to steal the throne itself, but was caught. The Wizard banished him from the Emerald City, and hid the throne in the tunnels underneath the Royal Palace. The Wizard soon leads them up a spiraling tunnel that goes to the surface. At the top, he taps his walking stick, and a section of marble opens up leading them outside the Emerald City and closing behind them. After many hours of walking, the Wizard, using his compass, leads them to the Gillikin Country. A Gillikin farmer tells them that Lavendoria is situated on the other side of the Mauve Mountains, which are inhabited by dangerous creatures.

After some time and food, they head to the mountains, where they climb up to a canyon that leads through the mountains. At the canyon top, they encountered an unusual creature called the Whoozis, which has a scaly body, long neck, hippopotamus head, and peacock tail. The creature approaches to eat them, but the Wizard threatens him with an invisible dragon who will protect them. As the creature doesn't believe, him, he uses his ventriloquist skills to produce fearsome roars and cries, causing the Whoozis to run away.

Coming across a ditch, the Wizard produces a rope, which he turns into a lasso. After some throws, he secures it to the other side, but when the Queen reveals that she's afraid of heights, the Wizard puts her inside his coat pocket, and using his tightrope walking skills he learned in the circus, he crosses the distance. Once on the other side, however, he's accosted by the Whatzis, which has the body of a tiger, the head of an elephant, and the wings of an eagle.

The Wizard again attempts his invisible dragon trick, but the creature isn't fooled, as he can smell nothing nearby, and besides which, he isn't afraid of dragons, having slain some in the past. But when the Queen of the Field Mice pops out her head, the creature flees in terror. Nighttime by the time they exit the Mauve Mountains, they decide to sleep. Leaving the Queen in an orchard, the Wizard crosses to the light of what he hopes will be a welcoming farmhouse, but it turns out to be a strange wooden cottage shaped in the form of a jack-o'-lantern.

He hears odd singing, and the door opens to reveal an unpleasant-looking woman who identifies herself as Mombi. She offers him a drink, but fearful of the woman and place, he declines and departs back to the orchard. The next morning, after a breakfast of fruit, they come to Lavendoria. Worse, the Wizard discovers that General Riskitt is there, and sees that a torn piece from his purple cape is the very same cloth the Queen of the Field Mice had discovered. Deciding to follow General Riskitt, whose riding atop a unicorn, the general leads them back to the pumpkin-shaped cottage of Mombi.

The Queen of the Field Mice goes to spy, and discovers that Mombi had given Riskitt a sleeping potion, which he used to abduct her people. With a machine Mombi created, the general intends to use the now chained mice to power the machine, which will drain the magic of Oz into General Riskitt, making him all-powerful She also learns that it was General Riskitt who put Mombi up to enchanting the former King Pastoria. Now, with the power he'll gain, he intends to depose the Wizard.

When the machine fails to work, however, Mombi consults her Answer Book, which tells her that it's missing one mouse, who is right there in the cottage. Whem Mombi discovers her, the Queen flees to the Wizard to inform him of everything she learned, but Mombi emerges from her cottage in the form of a griffin, and snatches up the field mouse Queen, while General Riskitt confronts the Wizard.

Although the Wizard tells him he does not wish to hurt him, the General lunges with his sword.

THE BULL CATCHERS: A Unique Journey Into the Wild Heart of Oz

Using his walking stick and the lessons he learned from Sharpy at the circus, the Wizard sidesteps and sends the general headlong into a tree, knocking him out. But when he goes to the front door of Mombi's cottage, a trapdoor opens up under his feet and he falls into her cellar. With the final field mouse in place, Mombi begins her machine.

General Riskitt bursts into the hut, making demands, so Mombi explains to him that whomever wears the ring will receive the magic being sucked out of Oz. Then she puts the ring on herself! She suddenly transforms into a young woman, explaining that she deceived him in order to get him to purchase the equipment she needed to build the machine, and will now become Queen of Oz. Meanwhile, using a trick he learned at the circus from an escaped artist, the Great Spandini, the Wizard uses his stickpin to pick the cellar door lock, and enters Mombi's storeroom, where he finds and pockets a growth powder.

He sneaks into the room where the field mice are being kept prisoner of the machine, and sprinkles the growth powder on them. When Riskitt and Mombi spot him, she flings him across the room with the wave of her hand, but he utters the spell that turns the mice giant for an hour. This disrupts the machine, which begins to sputter and spark. The Wizard and mice escape just before the machine explodes and blows the roof off the cottage.

Mombi barely escapes herself, and, returning to the form of a griffin, only now with singed wings and black fur, she flies off. The Wizard's trip back home is uneventful, as the creatures of the Mauve Mountains had heard of his defeat of Mombi and let him be.

Suddenly, the Queen of the Field Mice orders her people to attack. She frees the Wizard, explaining that they'd spotted Riskitt atop his unicorn on the way to the Emerald City. The Wizard attempts to arrest the fallen general, but he escapes into the dark second cavern, and although the Wizard warns him, he trips and falls into the underground river, which takes him far away. The Queen of the Field Mice and her subjects are welcome to stay in the Palace and do so for a week before returning home.

The Wizard then returns to seclusion. Contradictions : In order to keep How the Wizard Saved Oz in continuity, some pages have to be excised. These include the too-early appearance of the Wogglebug, in Chapter 6, and the mention and appearance of Tip in Chapters 11 and The idea that the author puts forward, that these are the three visits the Wizard makes to Mombi, has to be in error, as is his conception that Mombi abducted Princess Ozma from Pastoria when she transformed him into a bird.

These few pages are thus excised on the Royal Timeline, and should be considered non-canon, allowing the rest of the story to occur as told. This change, then, would point to the first time the Wizard met Mombi, but it was an unintentional meeting, and should be noted as being before the three visits he makes to her hut, leading to his giving baby Ozma in her charge, all of which is detailed in Oz and the Three Witches.

Dating : Although the book is ambiguously dated to the time before Dorothy arrives in , the excision of contradictory material see above allows it to be better dated to the time before the Wizard brings baby Ozma to Mombi, but after he's begun living in the Emerald City, namely Field Mice: According to Mombi's Answer Book , there are field mice living in Oz at this time, all of whom are subject to the Queen of the Field Mice, and all of whom were abducted by General Riskitt.

If this seems like a small number, it likely does not include all the many other types of mice, rat, or rodent in Oz. By the time of Oz and the Three Witches , the Wizard appears to know of at least some mice living in or near the Palace, as he uses some for a magic trick, and by the time of Ruggedo in Oz , there are thousands of mice living in their own city in the Palace with another city elsewhere in Oz.

The Wizard seems unaware of this, which likely means that some of the Queen's subjects decided to stay behind in the Palace at this time and start a new colony. Nevertheless, he grew to be like his angry and wicked father in the former king's enchanted form and somehow rose to the rank of general. What his relationship was like to his father and half-brother is unknown, but it's noted that he's not popular with the people, who likely are aware of his violent nature, and who were likely disposed towards the friendly Pastoria II.

This did not stop his ambitions following the disappearance of his father and brother to become king, though it did thwart his plans of having the people revolt against the Wizard. It's also revealed that it was General Riskitt himself who petitioned Mombi to get rid of his half-brother Pastoria II.

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In doing this, Mombi earned his trust and later tricked him into financing the magic-draining machine that would give her the power she wanted to defeat the East and West Witches and become Queen of Oz. General Riskitt's disappearance down the underground river likely means that he returns again in an as-yet untold story. Magic-Draining Machine : Mombi likely stole the plans for the magic-draining machine from Dr. Although the text says only that she took it from the "Crooked Magician who lives on Lonely Mountain" [76], two points make it appear that this is more likely to be Dr.

Pipt than Dr. For one, she says that he intended to destroy the plans for the machine, fearing it would prove too dangerous in the wrong hands. This concern for the greater good is much more in keeping with Dr. Pipt at this time. Nikidik would likely have used the machine himself had he the plans for it. Pipt lives Dr. Nikidik resided in the Gillikin Country. Mombi : Although unknown to the author at this time, several aspects of Mombi's behavior in this story can be reinterpreted in light of her true nature as a Yookoohoo " The Gillikin Witches of Oz " and Oziana ' s " The Malevolent Mannequin in Oz , " including her transformation into a griffin which she does in The Marvelous Land in Oz and a young woman, which is her actual form as Yookoohoos stopped aging after Lurline's enchantment.

What the machine may have given her is the ability to transform without having to rely on her Yookoohoo talisman. What it would have given her is dominion over the Wicked Witches of the East and West, who were the real threats to Oz at this time. When the machine is destroyed, Mombi not only loses her Answer Book and some of her potions, but winds up injured in the blast, and her griffin form shows her to have singed wings and blackened fur. It is likely that in this weakened state that she was defeated by Orin, the Good Witch of the North, later in this same year.

Under the Royal Palace : With the push of a hidden emerald on the throne, a passageway underneath the Palace is discovered, along with several caverns. The Wizard says he "designed this passageway myself," [11] though it's not known to what extent. There is diamond-studded tunnel and a large cavern in which gigantic emeralds hang in clusters, and these may be his design. Ruggedo comes to live under the palace for a time Kabumpo in Oz , though he never discovers the passages leading to the throne, though whether that was because of the maze-like nature of the underground, or because Ozma had it removed is unknown though why she would do the latter is unknown.

Strips From her newly constructed castle, the Wicked Witch of the West sends her Shadow Wolves to oppress her people, while her sister in the East uses a robotic soldier to oppress hers. Although he remains in hiding at this time, he often goes out in disguise, such as the time he destroyed the witch's robot soldier. In the Munchkin Country, Lady Malvonia approaches a magician, who she tasked with creating the perfect soldier that does not eat or sleep. He credits two Munchkins for assembling this being, but claims to have brought him to life.

When she sees it is a wobbly Scarecrow, she's unimpressed, but wonders if he could make more. He asserts he could, but just then his shed of magical equipment explodes. They discover a note from the Wizard saying he's watching. Posing as a guard nearby, Oscar slips away happy in the knowledge there's a spy in her midst who informs him of her dealings.

He enters his balloon, which can become invisible when necessary, thanks to Glinda, and flies back to the Emerald City, noting an approaching storm. Glinda meanwhile, keeps the Shadow Wolves from crossing into the Quadling Country.

Morella arrives, threatening that she won't stop until she's had her revenge of the Wizard and his supporters, and Glinda concludes that her hatred's driven her mad. The Wicked Witch of the West, as she refers to herself now, takes a small spider and turns her giant-sized. Glinda uses her magic to lift her into the air and hurl her into a far-away forest.

But the giant spider was only a diversion. Kalidahs now stalk amongst the Shadow Wolves. Forced to stay late after school for having punched Billy Gulch after he pulled Toto's tail, Dorothy notes a storm coming and runs home. Too late, Dorothy is caught in her house as the tornado flies it away. Lady Malvonia, meanwhile, orders the farmers to take the Scarecrow to some cornfield, and banishes the magician from before her.

After ordering her guards to keep searching for the Wizard, she looks up to see a house falling on her. The Wizard returns to the Emerald City, but hears a strange voice asking for help, and retires. Morella prepares to spring her trap on Glinda, but the sorceress surprises her with a hidden army of her own.

As they prepare to fight, the Wicked Witch feels the death of her sister and flies off. Her creatures scatter. Strips Dorothy's amazed at the beauty of the place they landed, but when Toto chases after a bird, and the bird tell him to mind his manners, Dorothy knows she's far from home. Having seen the house fall on the witch, the Munchkin magician believes the girl is a powerful sorceress and informs two fellow Munchkins he's summoned help.

Munchkin Magician: A low-level magician who was apparently acquainted enough with the Good Witch of the North to be able to summon her when Dorothy's house squashed the Wicked Witch of the East. He is one of the three Munchkins along with Boq to have greeted Dorothy upon her arrival.

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Scarecrow origins : In order for this story to fit into the events told of the Scarecrow's origins in Cryptic Conversations in a Cornfield , it should be understood that the Wicked Witch of the East was testing the magician to see if he was authentic and how powerful he was, and either subdue or eliminate him if a threat. It was she who brought the Scarecrow to life earlier in secret to see what he'd do. When he took credit for it, she knew he was lying, and was in the midst of testing him further asking him if he could make more , when his shed was set on fire by the Wizard, who was taking no chances.

Knowing that the flimsy Scarecrow was no real use to her as a soldier, she dismisses him, and the Munchkin farmers who made him put him back on his beanpole. Figuring the magician tp be a fraud, she dismissed him as well. The Magical Monarch of Mo a. Frank Baum wrote, in More Mo : Several characters from this book appear in later post-Baum Oz stories, e. The sorceress Maetta was used by Baum in his Wogglebug play. Nighttime : As regards the existence of a night-time in Mo, The Scarecrow of Oz contradicts the authorial claim in The Magical Monarch of Mo by indicating that there is nighttime which the text of Magical Monarch itself seems to suggest.

As regards the dog Prince, Michael Patrick Hearn suggests in The Annotated Wizard of Oz that the "country beyond the mountains and the desert," from where he arrives might have been Oz, which would explain why he's so comfortable conversing with humans. How he crossed the desert remains the same mystery as to how the Wise Donkey crossed it to Oz. Outside World : Although Mo must be in the Nonestic since those characters come from there to Oz, the giant Hartilaf who lives in the adjacent valley from the king makes a relatively short trip from Mo to Alaska to hunt he's also able to access South America with ease.

Either magic is involved in the journey, or there is a bridge to these areas of the Outside World in Mo, and may explain how the land's human residents arrived there. Phunnyland is also name-checked in The Life and Adventures of Santa Claus , which may indicate that that name is what those who live outside of the land call it, whereas as residents refer to it as Mo. Dot and Tot of Merryland.

Synopsis : The titular characters end up in an odd fairyland divided into seven sections, including a valley of clowns, dolls and cats. They meet the Queen of the realm a doll herself who treats them as guests, and then guides them the rest of the way out of Merryland. Dating: Although not explicitly indicated, the date can be extrapolated from its sequel in Oziana 's " Roselawn. If Dot and Tot of Merryland took place much earlier, they would be considerably older, which doesn't seem to fit with the characterizations and narrative in Roselawn.

Purpose : There is little rhyme or reason as to why Merryland exists. The queen notes that no one from the outside has ever visited it, and it's been guarded for years. Furthermore, she blocks further entrance. There are living toys and rides that wish to be played with that aren't; there are living dolls and clowns that have no one but themselves to entertain. Only the cats seem to be content in this strange world. Queen Zixi of Ix.

Synopsis : Considered by Baum one of his best books, this more traditionally European fantasy tells the story of brother and sister Bud and Fluff, who after their father dies, enters the kingdom of Noland, whose king has also just died. By virtue of random chance, Bud is crowned king, while his sister is given a Magic Cloak woven by the fairies in Burzee which will grant one wish to any mortal who wears it. Here, she is given the name Lulea who also appears in the short story "Nelebel's Fairyland".

As several Oz stories have shown Lurline having spent considerable time in Burzee e. It may be that Lurline uses the name Lulea to keep her brother from discovering her there, likely with Zurline's permission, as she is the actual ruler there. Man in the Moon : The Man in the Moon plays a significant role in the story, advising the fairies who the Magic Cloak should go to. This is apparently also not the first time the fairies have summoned him forth to aid them in a matter.

Queen Zixi of Ix : She is here listed as being years old, though she appears to everyone's eyes as a beautiful 16 year old. She is noted as a good witch who rules her people well, though she cannot disguise her true appearance in a mirror which is why none are kept around. She has fought and won a hundred wars in her time. Prior to the events of this book, her kingdom and Noland were not on good terms, though no details explain why. Roly-Rogues : Nothing is known of the history of the Roly-Rogues who live atop a plateau on the highest mountain bordering Noland, save that their name is a nickname.

Ages ago they defeated the gnoles gnolls of Gnole Land, which is the original name of Noland. John Dough and the Cherub. Synopsis: When a baker's gets hold of a magical elixir, she accidentally brings to life a man-sized gingerbread man, who everyone wants to eat! Named John Dough, he escapes the owner of the elixir temporarily by flying off to an enchanted land called the Island of Phreex, and there meets his future companion, Chick the Cherub, the first incubator baby, who helps John through a series of adventures, including escape from the Palace of Romance, where one must tell continual tales or be put to death.

John and Chick then escape to the Island of Mifkets, where they meet Pittipat the Rabbit and Para Bruin a sapient rubber bear who doesn't know his origins. The King of the Fairy Beavers also keeps his palace there, along with a device that serves the same function as Ozma's Magic Picture. Chick becomes a self-appointed Head Booleywag. Dating : The story must be dated on July 3d, The dating is determined by two factors. The first is the age and identity of Chick the Cherub, who the story notes is the original incubator baby, and the second is an internal dating reference to the Louisiana Purchase Exhibition.

Interestingly, after this event, she disappears from history and nothing else is known of her, or even how long she lived. As the text of John Dough and the Cherub emphasizes that Chick is the "first and only original incubator baby," it seems likely that it's her who ended up on the Isle of Phreex. Chick's Age : In the book's fifth chapter, "Chick the Cherub," Chick jokes that her age is six, but she's reproved by a friend who says "It was more than two years ago you were taught to make that speech.

You can't be always six years old, you know. Although she's been claiming to be six for over two years, she might have been saying something else prior to that. The text has one of the characters ask John Dough if he knows about the Louisiana Purchase Exposition where incubator babies were featured.

This event began on April 30, This forces the earliest date this story could occur in July of , although, based on the identity of Chick, it makes her sixteen years old. Despite her small size and stature, however, this is certainly possible, as she notes being on a very restricted diet due to being an incubator baby of oatmeal and cream, which, apart from genetics, could result in her being much smaller in size and stature than an average sixteen year old.

Sport and Jacqueline and her parents and their island appear again for the first time in The Royal Explorers of Oz: Book 1. Folk Origins : John Dough is based on an older folk story St. Nicholas magazine published the first Gingerbread Man story in and an German story has one of a runaway pancake. Purportedly, its roots lie in ancient Grecian tradition of a substitute human sacrifice. His being made of gingerbread makes him irresistible to eat for those without scruples which he encounters who don't care that he's alive.

The Great Elixir also enables him to understand and speak the language of animals and foreigners, and provides him knowledge and strength. The Great Elixir belonged to Ali Dubh, who is himself being hunted for it. He claims it had been passed down in his family through the ages to him. By means of a witch in the Outside World, Dubh purchases two "transport powders" which enable him to follow John from the Outside World, first to the Isle of Phreex, and from there to the Isle of Mifkets, where he intends to eat him, and live forever.

History : Baum began the first four chapters of a different version of the story in without Chick the Cherub for the Ladies Home Journal , but after they rejected it, he put it away until when he fleshed it out. Two films adaptations were made of this book, one by Baum himself. As with the original manuscript, both are lost. Mifkets : It is likely that Mifkets and Mifkits are related, if not the same creature.

What relationship either has to Scoodlers The Road to Oz is yet unknown, but there appears to be some commonality between them. Para Bruin : There is no explanation as to the Rubber Bear's origins. Racism : The Mifkets speak Arabic, which leads the King of Mifkes to make the unfortunate statement that the Arabs descend from Mifkets. Rockets to Oz : It's noteworthy that the way John travels to the Isle of Phreex, which is just off the Nonestican continent, is by means of a large Fourth of July rocket.

Years later, Speedy will end up getting to Oz by means of a home-made rocket-ship. Tales from the Arabian Knights : John meets his cherubic companion Chick, along with an assortment of other "freaks," and escapes Dubh by means of mechanical bird to the Palace of Romance, but as their laws force visitors to continue telling stories—or die, they must escape that islet as well. This old law is a concept borrowed from Arabian Knights —which points to another Arabic connection.

Twinkle and Chubbins aka. The Twinkle Tales. Policeman Bluejay aka. Babes in Birdland. Both stories were finally combined into one book as was Baum's wish under the The Twinkle Tales moniker by the University of Nebraska Press. The Collected Short Stories of L. Frank Baum. History: Baum's short fantasy stories have appeared in numerous journals and books over the years. Frank Baum , which reprints nearly every short fantasy story that Baum wrote, except "The Strange Tale of the Nursery Folk," whose authorship is in question, but which can be found in The Runaway Shadow and Other Stories "Chrome Yellow" is also missing from that collection, but that is not a fantasy story.

While some of these take place in the outside world, all of the fantasy stories of Baum can be said to take place in the same universe, not of few of which are connected to Oz or the countries surrounding Oz. Frank Baum can be seen as an important Borderlands of Oz tales.

The Box of Robbers. The Glass Dog. The Queen of Quok. The Girl Who Owned a Bear. The Enchanted Types. The Laughing Hippopotamus. The Magic Bon Bons. The Capture of Father Time.

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The Wonderful Pump. The Dummy That Lived. The King of the Polar Bears. The Mandarin and the Butterfly. The Witchcraft of Mary-Marie. The Ryl of the Lillies. The Story of Jaglon. It was intended that they would expand all of Baum's Animal Fairy Tales , but as the first book failed to sell well, the idea was abandoned. The Royal Timeline of Oz considers this expanded version to be canonical, and lists below where the interpolations occur. Synopsis :. Original version. The Wilderness is divided into three Circles, the Outer, where the small animals dwell, the Middle, where the larger peaceful animals live, and the Inner, and most beautiful, where the dominant and ferocious animals fight for the privilege to live.

In the Outer Circle, the orphan tiger cub Jaglon was discovered by Nao, the Tiger Fairy, after his parents failed to return from a hunt. Nao and the other invisible Tiger Fairies looked after him until he grew strong. One day, a Bat-Witch attempts to eat his kill. When he swipes her away, she begins seeking a way to revenge herself upon him. Knowing the Tiger Fairies protect him, she watches in the hopes he'll break the Laws of the Wilderness or act cowardly.

Interpolation: Jaglon and the Tiger Fairies expansion. Returning from a hunt one day, Jaglon comes upon a small lizard caught in the roots of a vine. After freeing him, the lizard named Flitter vows to remain near him and repay the favor. Jaglon says this is unnecessary, but accepts his friendship. The lizard proves true to his word and follows him wherever he goes, and sleeping nearby at night. Learning from a mischievous Lynx that the Lions had driven all the Tigers out of the Inner Circle, Jaglon determines to enter and face the King of the Beasts.

In the vast Middle Circle, he grows hungry, but coming upon a Jaguar and his prey, he refuses to seize it; coming upon a trapped Fox, he sets him free; coming upon a Bear in his lair, he concedes it. Angry that he's committed no transgression, the Bat-Witch taunts him, calling him "coward," but he ignores her. Pleased with Jaglon, the Tiger Fairies transport him into a nice cave with plenty of food and water.

They tell him they've found favor with him. He's heard tales of them and knows that each race has its own Fairyland. They then inform him to be brave and forgiving, as he will prove to the champion of a discredited race. The next day, the magic cave vanishes, and Jaglon proceeds into the Inner Circle from which his race had been banned years before. He's warned by a Bison and Grizzly, and an Elephant tells him his ancestors had been cruel and tyrannical, for which reason the Lions conquered them. Where the former Lion King might have tolerated his presence, the new King Avok is proud.

Jaglon, however, is determined to have his place amongst the great beasts. Elephant spreads the word. That night, the fairies come to Flitter, explaining that they must depart for another Wilderness to help a Tiger King who needs their wisdom to rule his people. Nao requests that Flitter look after Jaglon that night so that no harm comes to him and he has the strength to deal with the Lion King on the morrow. Ragna, the leader of a band of five Leopards, soon hears of the Outcast Tiger and determines to kill the upstart while he sleeps, and curry favor with the king.

Flitter hears the approach of the Leopards and awakens Jaglon. He rises up to face them, and they're awed by his size and power. Unable to kill him while he slept, they withdraw to warn the Lion King. Jaglon thanks Flitter for repaying his debt and declares a bond between them for all time. Bears, Bison, Moose, Zebra, Hippos, Unicorns, Elephants, Rhinos, Apes and Serpents gather before the king, whose summoned the other Lions to propose changing the Law so that his son, and not his brother's, will be made king after him.

The Lions object that the Law of the Wilderness cannot be changed even by the King. So, King Avok determines to drown the three cubs and dares anyone to stop him. At this, Jaglon steps forth, and seeing his great strength, Avok claims he cannot fight an Outcast, as his people were cruel. Jaglon counters that his intent to kill innocent cubs is cruel. Avok says his ancestors were overbearing. Jaglon counters that he will a just king.

Avok says his people were treacherous. Jaglon responds that he is being treacherous to his late brother. The Lions and other animals admire the Outcast and urge their king to battle. The Lion King leaps towards Jaglon who meets him in the air with a terrible clash. In the battle, King Avok finds himself blind and leaps into a nearby lake from which he is never seen or heard from again. Jaglon proves true to his word and rules in kindness, patience and gentleness. Jaglon and Flitter live happily together till the end of their days. Animal Fairies: That each beast has its own group of fairies to govern over their kind, and not knooks, as indicated in The Life and Adventures of Santa Claus.

Nathan M. Dehoff notes this in his Vovatia blog:. Were they replaced in their guardianship by fairies in the shapes of animals, and had to take on a new function? It is the contention of The Royal Timeline of Oz that this is exactly what happened. Dating: It is difficult to ascertain at what point in time this story takes place. As Baum's mythology incorporates the version of history provided in the Old Testament book of Genesis, this would indicate that the story is not pre-mankind, since animals were yet living in peace with one another and the Law of the Wilderness providing rules governing how carnivores can and cannot behave would not have come into being until after the Flood.

This would indicate that the Wilderness is in a land yet far away from humans, or even a place where humans do not travel such as Burzee in the early days. The presence of unicorns would place this at an early time period. Courage also seems to be a rule. It is not known exactly who upholds the Law and punishes wrongdoers, save that it may be the Fairies of that particular kind of animal.

When Jaglon's ancestors broke the Law by being cruel, treacherous and overbearing, the Lions were given power to depose the king and exile the Tigers, who appear to have gone to the Outer Circle where the cub Jaglon was found. Jaglon and the Tiger Fairies indicates that there are other Wildernesses. It is unknown where upon the Earth the Wilderness was situated, save that Man is yet unknown there at this time. It is not in Fairyland, as Jaglon notes that all beasts have their own Fairyland, which points to a Heaven for each kind of animal.

It is possible that Jaglon does not have the full picture, and that Fairyland incorporates all kinds of animals in peace with one another. The Stuffed Alligator. Continuity Notes The Discontented Gopher. The Forest Oracle. The Enchanted Buffalo. The Pea-Green Poodle. The Jolly Giraffe of Jomb. The Troubles of Pop Wombat. The Transformation of Bayal the Porcupine. The Tiger's Eye. Originally Collected in the following Miscellaneous Collections:. Nelebel's Fairyland. Synopsis: The fairy Nelebel is banished from Burzee and exiled to the outside world with a retainer of forty knooks, ryls and gigans to accompany her.

There, in Coronado, San Francisco, she determines it a new fairyland, and after a hundred years has passed, is sad to leave it. Since the Magic Lands are now extra-dimensional, this likely indicates that one of the gateways to the Nonestic lies west of the Pacific. Nelebel : This fairy, banished to the outside world, was earlier part of Queen Lurline's band.

She enchanted the evil Blorgens to sleep for a thousand years. Little Bun Rabbit. One of the Baum's Mother Goose in Prose stories, this short features the tale of a young girl named Dorothy, and there is no reason to say that this isn't the Dorothy of Kansas years before she travels to Oz. The Littlest Giant. First published in the Spring issue of The Baum Bugle. Synopsis: After years of being scorned by his fellow giants, Nibble the Littlest Giant convinces Kwa, the son of King Goola the Gutton to steal his father's magic dart in order to obtain mince pies. This dart, which precisely meets its target, has allowed the king to kill numerous elephants, horses, and humans, which the giants eat.

Kwa replaces the dart with a fake one that Nibble has made, so that when the king arises to go after horses, he is overtaken and killed by a band of humans. With the magic dart in his possession, Nibble overcomes any giant who dares his ascension to the throne, reducing the giant population, and turning the community into a more insular one.

Dating : There is no indication in this short story as to when it takes place. It appears to be before Ozma comes to the throne, as the giant destruction of man and beast would likely not have gone unchallenged by Ozma. The existence of automobiles likely places it after lates. Sequel : A retold version was included in its novel-length sequel The Giant King of Oz , which works to place the story in the context of Oz history.

The Runaway Shadows aka. A Trick of Jack Frost. Synop sis : The Frost King informs his son Jack Frost that it's his birthday, and the coldest day of the year, and to go forth and play pranks on the earth people, nipping noses, ears, toes and fingers. Meanwhile, the demanding Prince of Thumbumbia insists that despite the cold he and his cousin Lady Lindeva will go out to play, and requests their furs.


Wrapped head to toe, they venture out, and there Jack Frost awaits them. Yet, he's puzzled that he's unable to get to their noses and ears, so he decides to freeze their shadows instead. Once a solid mass, the shadows come to life, and Jack puts into their heads the notion to run away. Leaping the great wall, they head in the direction of Burzee. Entering the forest, Kahtah the great tiger of Burzee spots their shadows and lies in wait for the prince and his cousin, but when he pounces the shadows only laugh at him and run.

A ryl inquires why they've left their masters, and they reply that it's fun and they don't wish to tag along. But he reminds them that when the weather changes, they will thaw and become as nothing, leaving their masters with no shadows. Heeding his advice, they return to the castle of their masters to join with them once again. In the interim, however, the prince's uncle has died, leaving him to rule the kingdom. But when he stands in the sun preparing to board the carriage that will take him to the city to be crowned, one of the courtiers notices that he has no shadow.

Thus, they decide that since no one can respect a king who has no shadow, they will make Lady Lindeva queen instead. But when they discover that she has no shadow either, they bring the matter before Earl Highlough. Determining to go see for himself, he heads to the Castle of Thumbumbia, but by then the shadows have returned and thawed out in the castle, and the prince is made king. Years later, after they are married, the wise King and Queen always look to see that their shadows are still attached, but for their part, the shadows had learned their lesson.

Dating : Apart from the time of year being winter, there's no indication as to year itself. The proximity of these realms is here shown, and is represented on the official map of Oz by the International Wizard of Oz Club. Synopsis : When a young electronics aficionado accidentally unlocks the Master Key, the Demon of Electricity comes to bring him various advanced gifts to help mankind. On his first trip into the world, the boy squanders these gifts and nearly doesn't make it back.

The Demon gives him three additional gifts. On his second trip he discovers several ruthless characters and adventures. Refusing any further gifts, the boy concludes that mankind isn't ready to handle them, and sends the demon away. Although not considered one of the Borderlands of Oz books, the Demon of Electricity is undoubtedly part of Baum's larger mythology, and appears again in the yet unpublished book, The Royal Crab of Oz. Dating can be narrowed to the time of the Second Boer War.

Royal Baking Company B ooks. For more information, go here. These stories were all directly brought into continuity in the short story " The Hearts and Flowers of Oz. Billy in Bunbury. Synopsis: Flap Jack, the King's messenger, informs King Hun Bun that their neighbor Billy won't eat breakfast and has lost his taste for baseball. Taking his dog Ginger Snaps and a train to Billy's house he inquires of the boy what the matter is, and Billy tells him there's nothing good to eat.

Noting how thin the boy is, he looks around and finds there's no dessert anywhere. The King then tells his mother the boy is being deprived, but she remarks that cakes are too expensive. Hun Bun then gives her Dr. Price's Baking Powder cook book. Taking Billy with them on the train back to Bunbury, Billy discovers a greeting party of cakes and tarts.

Shrinking him down, they take him to the circus and then the police, where he breaks off a piece of the fence to eat and part of the gate. After several other points of interest, Billy grows hungry and the King realizes he has to go before he starts feasting on them. Price's Baking Powder. Billy's mother becomes a great cook and Billy begins to enjoy food and life again. Bunbury: Bunbury first appeared in The Emerald City of Oz , though by the time of this story, there are some changes in the city.

The dating is when Dr. Price's Baking Powder cook book was released; it also fits in with the history of Oz which didn't know baseball until when Peter taught them about it in The Gnome King of Oz. As Nathan M. Then again, who knows what political changes occurred within the intervening years? As to the Syrup Sea that Bunbury resides next to Baum only notes that it's in a clearing in the forest , this may be a feature of Bunbury that Dorothy didn't get to see, and may be more of a lake or pond that they call a sea.

The Little Gingerbread Man. Synopsis : When the King of Jalapomp bans cakes due to indigestion from the cook's bad baking, the citizens of Jalapomp grow despondent, particularly since the birthday of Princess Posy is almost at hand. The Gingerbread Man is brought to life and volunteers to help. Other sapient baked goods hear the story and join him.

The queen gives him a book to give to his cook. Magically, they fly in a chocolate plane to Jalapomp. The king smells them and discovers his appetite growing, and says that if his baker could make bake cakes as good as them, he'd end the prohibition. To avoid getting eaten themselves, they toss the royal cook book along with Royal Baking Powder from the air, and he begins to bake cakes and cookies that are delicious. Dating : The implication may be that this takes place during the advent of the Royal Baking Powder Company, after but before , when the company merged with Fleischman to become Standard Brands.

Their cookbook, which is mentioned in the poem several times, was published in , which offers the earliest date in which this story can take place. The dating is clarified in the short story " The Hearts and Flowers of Oz. The Gooch : Mentioned by the King of Jalapomp who says "May a Gooch fly off with you" , this flying creature may clarify the expression that Kabumpo often says, and likely hails from Zamagoochie in the Gillikin Country see the notes in The Gnome King of Oz.

Queen of the Flour Folk : This queen is noted for bringing to life all of the sapient baked people. The Comical Cruises of Captain Cooky. Synopsis: The King of all the royal cakes ensures that his baked goods reach everyone via his messenger bird the Royal Dough-Dough. One day, the bird reports that in the midst of a green sea no one has ever sailed is the Isle of Bombaree, whose residents have never tasted cake, and who make wars instead of having fun. On the island they meet the Chief Wallypoo who warns them to leave if they don't wish to fight, but Captain Cooky and his crew build an oven and begin baking.

Wallypoo and the other islanders love the biscuits, tarts and pies, and the captain and his crew stay a week teaching them how to bake the Royal way. He departs, leaving them a large supply of Royal Baking Powder, and in time the islanders become more peaceful. Baked Goods : As with "The Little Gingerbread Man," the thrust of the story is on providing a community with tasty baked goods. In the story, " The Hearts and Flowers of Oz ," this land works with Cookry Land and Bunbury for the purpose of ensuring food is distributed throughout Nonestica.

Dating : As the story deals with Royal Baking Powder products, it also likely takes place around the same time as "The Little Gingerbread Man," though in this story there is no mention of the cook book until the end, and the captain spends a week on Bombaree teaching the residents there how to cook, it seems likely the islanders don't know how to read.

There is no explicit name given for the kingdom, nor even of the king himself who is merely called the Royal Coffee Cake. As with the Gelatin Isles, this realm borders the sea. The Prince of the Gelatin Isles. Synopsis: As the Gela-tinies of the Royal Gelatin Isle enjoy themselves and their Gela-town, which borders the macaroon mountains that only banana birds and elves know how to find, Prince Jolliby Jell leads a squadron of ships in his flagship Tiny across the sea.

Watching for pirates, they magically deliver their royal treat to hundreds of children before returning to their Gelatin Isle. Concerned that he can't reach everyone, he petitions the old Royal Jinn who lives on macaroon mountain to spread their goodies everywhere. The Jinn, who is a wizard, and who made the Gelatin Isle with the help of a ginger bird and orange elf, magically creates a formula that mothers everywhere can easily make. Dating : The main hint as to the date is that the "jolly" Jinn was so enthralled with his creation that he decided to make the gelatin treats available to mothers and children everywhere.

Although the distribution of commercial gelatin desserts took place at the turn of the century which maybe around the time the Jinn created the isle , the Royal Gelatin brand began in Jinnicky and the Gelatin Isles: While the story is thin, mostly descriptions of the various personages and the island itself, the Gelatin Isles is noted as being created by a jinn who's a wizard. While it would at first seem unlikely that this is Jinnicky the Red Jinn of Ev, since the text refers to him as "old" and "thin," by comparison to the Gela-tinies, who are depicted as very fat and very young, the Jinn would be considered by them old and thin.

He is said to have needed the assistance of a ginger bird and an orange elf to create the Gelatin Isles, and presumably the Kingdom of Royal Cakes from The Comical Cruises of Captain Cooky , as that land also borders an ocean. The Red Jinn, of course, lives in Ev and not the macaroon mountains, but he may have a residence there. Pirates : The pirates who the Gela-tinies watch over may be the same ones that plague Volcano Island, which is also made of dough, in Lucky Bucky in Oz.

King Kojo. Those stories were reformatted for the book and include the original illustrations from Marge of Little Lulu fame. This second collection of short Ruth Plumly Thompson stories and poems contains along with early fantasy work she had written for various publications, several references to places and personages that were incorporated in Oz, such as Patch, Sun-Top Mountain and, mostly famously, Pumperdink.

There are as well several Oz shorts Thompson had written over the years. Note: the following listings do not include poetry unless directly or even indirectly related to Oz, or non-fantasies, e. The Wizard of Way-Up. The Yup citizens of Way Up who reside there are happy, live in castles of their own and have silver hair. The king's oldest friend is the Wise Man Woff the Wizard, a Scissor Wizard from a long line of Scissor Wizards, wielding the silver shears handed down to him.

Worrying about the future of the Princess Patickla, whose mother vanished when she was an infant, Woff suggests to the king that they invite princes and kings from below to court her. The king refuses, not wanting to lose the company of his little girl, even preferring she marry the gardener's boy Blenny. Taking matters into his own hand, Woff shoots a magical silver arrow in three directions with a picture of the princess and her name and title. Everyone is shocked by his squat and hairy appearance and rudeness, but he is angry that the rode all the way on the invitation of the picture that was sent to his castle, and demands that he will take her by force when he returns.

Woff goes about preparing an invisible wall, but that will take two days to erect, and in the meantime, Merk has hidden himself in the bushes. Finding the right castle proves difficult as everyone has a castle in Way-Up, and he climbs by mistake up Woff's castle stairs. Disappointed that no princess is at the top, he catches sight of himself in a mirror and is shocked to see just how ugly he is and begins to use the Wizard's shears to trim his hair, commenting that he should look as handsome as he is rich.

All of a sudden he's spun around and when he sees himself again he's changed into a handsome young monarch. Suspecting this was the result of the shears, he tales them and wishes himself back in the forest. With that, he turns his pack of boards into haroses and sleeps the night, plotting his next move.

The next morning he emerges as King Krem of Erim, bearing presents for the Princess.